Qādhi Abu al-Fadl ‘Ayādh رضي الله عنه writes:
If we claim to revere and honour Rasūlullah صلى الله عليه و سلّم, we must also respect and love his Ṣaḥābah رضي الله عنهم. As Muslims, it is incumbent upon us to understand that we owe them; we need to follow them and seek forgiveness on their behalf. No doubt, they have had their differences, but we have no right to criticize them. We must never doubt the sincerity and honesty of the Ṣaḥābah al-Kirām رضي الله عنهم.
When we come across any event in history which may likely lower their status, we must explain it as far as we can and attribute it to sincere motives. We must always speak of their virtues and hold our tongues from uttering any possible comment that might degrade their status. Rasūlullah صلى الله عليه و سلّم said: “Fear Allāh in regards to my companions (do not dishonour them).” (Al-Shifā – Vol 2: Pg. 52)
The scholars of Islām have maintained that is not permissible to discuss the differences and disagreements which took place between the Ṣaḥābah al-Kirām رضي الله عنهم as it may lead to pessimistic and cynical judgments regarding them. This will eventually result in the deterioration of our Imān.
The Ṣaḥābah al-Kirām رضي الله عنهم were those elite personalities whom Allāh Ta’ālā had given the certificate of divine pleasure in this very world. The eminent Jurist, Ibrahim al-Nakha’i رحمه اللهwas questioned regarding the civil unrests which took place among the companions رضي الله عنهم.
تلك دماء طهر الله أيدينا منها أفنلطخ ألسنتنا بها
Allāh Ta’ālā Allāh has kept our hands clean of their blood; must we now soil our tongues by slandering them
Many a theologian went to the extent of negating most of the historical narrations regarding the Mushājarah al-Ṣaḥābah (disagreements between the Ṣaḥābah رضي الله عنهم) as most of these narratives have been altered and falsified by the Shi’ites, historians and innovators, whose only intent was to destroy Islām from within by attacking the integrity of the Ṣaḥābah al-Kirām رضي الله عنهم.
SAYYIDINĀ MUA’WIYAH رضي الله عنه AND THE AHLUL BAYT رضي الله عنهم
The enemies of Islām alleged that Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه hated and reviled the respected family of Rasūlullah صلى الله عليه و سلّم. We hope that the unbiased Muslim will read the following and realise that if there was anything between Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه and the Ahlul Bayt, it was mutual love, affection and respect.
1. SAYYIDINĀ MUĀWIYYAH AND SAYYIDINĀ ‘ALI رضي الله عنهما
- Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه said: “Ali is better and more virtuous than me.”[Al-Bidāyah Wa al-Nihāyah pg. 129,259/ Vol. 7]
- Hishām Ibn Ammār رحمه الله reports that Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه said regarding Sayyidinā ‘Ali رضي الله عنه: “Even if Ali had decided to seclude himself in a cave, people would have still sought him out and brought him back (to benefit from him). [Siyar al-A’lām al-Nubala :5/147]
- Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه used to consult Sayyidinā Ali رضي الله عنه in jurisprudential matters.
- A Syrian man named Ibn Khaybari approached Amīr Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه regarding a certain Mas’alah. Muāwiyyah Ibn Abi Sufyan رضي الله عنه found it difficult to make a decision and wrote to Abu Musa al−Ash’ari رضي الله عنه to seek the counsel of Sayyidinā Ali Ibn Abi Ṭālib رضي الله عنه regarding the Mas’alah. (Muwatta Imam al-Malik)
- Once Sayyidinā Ali رضي الله عنه and Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه were in opposition when a Christian army decided to attack the Islāmic empire on the eastern provinces of Iran. Sayyidinā Ali رضي الله عنه was incapable of defending these territories at the time due to the on-going civil unrest. The Christians were aware of the difficulties of Sayyidinā Ali رضي الله عنه and felt that Amir Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه would be no threat. However, as soon as Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه heard this news, he wrote to the emperor saying, “You should not be deceived by our differences, if you turn towards my brother Ali رضي الله عنه, the first to fight you under Ali’s رضي الله عنه flag will be Muāwiyyah”. Seeing this, the Christians gave up the idea. . ( History of Islām Vol. 2 ,page 48-49)
- The King of Rome had great hopes of attacking and defeating Sayyidinā Mu’āwiyyah رضي الله عنه. When he saw that Sayyidinā Ali رضي الله عنه and Sayyidinā Mu’āwiyyah رضي الله عنه were preoccupied with the civil war, he approached with a huge army, filled with hope of victory. Sayyidinā Mu’āwiyyah رضي الله عنه wrote to him saying, “By Allāh! If you do not stop and go back to your own land, O cursed one, I shall unite with my cousin (Sayyidinā Ali رضي الله عنه), and I shall certainly expel you from your land! I will keep on pursuing you, and the Earth, vast as it is, will not be able to conceal you.” Upon which, the Byzantium king sent word seeking a peace treaty.”[al-Bidāyah wan-Nihāyah: 8/119]
ALLEGATION THAT SAYYIDINĀ MUĀWIYYAH رضي الله عنه USED TO CURSE SAYYIDINĀ ALI رضي الله عنه
Among the many distorted accusations made by Shi’ite historians and recent writers such as Abul ‘Ala Mawdūdi Sahib is that Sayyidinā Mu’āwiyyah رضي الله عنه and his governors started the practice of cursing and vilifying Sayyidinā Ali رضي الله عنه.
To substantiate their claims, they referred classical works such as Tārikh al-Tabari and Tārikh Ibn Atheer. But, If someone has to peruse these references, there is not a single quote which supports the preposterous claim that Sayyidinā Mu’āwiyyah رضي الله عنه used to curse Sayyidinā Ali رضي الله عنه. Let’s analyse the claims of Mawdūdi Sahib:
Mawdūdi claimed that Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه instructed all his governors to malign and curse Sayyidinā Ali رضي الله عنه (Khilāfat Aur Mulūkiyat). To substantiate his claim, he made mention of two narrations from Tārikh al-Tabari and al-Bidāyah. First and foremost, we need to know who were the Governors of Sayyidinā Mu’āwiyyah رضي الله عنه. They were:
a. The great Sahābi – Sayyidinā Mugheerah Ibn Shu’bah رضي الله عنه
b. Marwan Ibn Hakam رحمه الله
The Narration of Sayyidinā Mugheerah رضي الله عنه:
This narration has originally been narrated by Allāmah Ibn Jareer al-Tabari رحمه الله from whom Ibn Atheer رحمه الله quoted in his Tārikh al- Kāmil that Abu Mikhnaf said that Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه called upon Sayyidinā Mugheerah رضي الله عنه and commanded him to vilify and curse Sayyidinā Ali رضي الله عنه.
Mawdūdi sahib has actually based his objections against Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه on this narration. Before scrutinizing the narrators, Abu Mikhnaf further writes the words of Sayyidinā Mugheerah through which he supposedly vilified Sayyidinā Ali رضي الله عنه.
O Allāh have mercy upon Uthmān Ibn ‘Affān رضي الله عنه , pardon him and reward him for his good deeds as he adhered to the Qur’an al-Karīm and the Sunnah of your messenger صلى الله عليه و سلّم, united us, did not spill the blood of the Ummah (sacrificed his own life in the process) and died under oppression. O Allāh, help those who are his helpers, friends, lovers and seek to avenge’.
Actually, Sayyidinā Mugheerah رضي الله عنه used to curse the murderers of Uthmān رضي الله عنه, which the blasphemous Shias have interpreted as cursing Ali رضي الله عنه.
As for the narration, which is the basis of the antagonist’s accusation, it is not reliable because every single narrator is either a Shi’ite, a liar or unreliable:
1. Hishām bin al-Kalbi: Ibn ‘Asākir رحمه الله and Hāfidh Ibn Hajar al-Asqalāni رحمه الله have written that Hishām Ibn al-Kalbi is a staunch Shi’ite, liar and unreliable. (Lisānul Mīzān: pg. 196)
2. Abu Mikhnaf Lūt bin Yahyā: Hāfidh Ibn ‘Adi رحمه الله writes that “He is a notorious Shi’ite, and only narrates unreliable Shi’ite narrations” [ibid. Pg. 197]
3. Mujālid bin Sa’eed: The scholars of Hadith have unanimously discredited him. [Abu Hātim al-Rāzi, Kitāb Al-Jarh Wa al-Ta’dīl Vol.4 Pg. 361]
4. Fudhail bin Khadeej: Both, Hāfidh Ibn Hajar and Imam al-Dhahabi have stated that his narrations are most definitely rejected. [Mīzān al I’tidāl Vol 2 Pg. 334] From this we may understand that every single narrator of this narration is either of Shi’ite origin or among the accursed ones who have made it their life ambition to vilify the Sahābah رضي الله عنهم.
Marwan Ibn Hakam:
The second narration quoted by Mawdūdi Sahib: Marwan Ibn Hakam was the governor of Madinah Munawwarah; he used to malign Ali رضي الله عنه from the pulpit every Jumuah. Hasan Ibn Ali رضي الله عنه once said to him “Allāh had cursed your father Hakam through his Nabi صلى الله عليه و سلّم when you were still not born.” (Bidāyah Wa Nihāyah Vol 8 Pg. 259)
First and foremost, this whole narration is unacceptable because it has not been mentioned in the original al-Bidāyah Wa Nihāyah Egyptian script. It is a known fact that the enemies of Islām, especially the Shi’ites have been altering Islāmic resources throughout history and escaped the consequences by manipulating the common Muslims through their ridiculous belief of Taqiyah.
However, something of this sort has been mentioned in other sources that Marwan Ibn Hakam رحمه الله used to say some words which were looked down upon by the friends of Ali رضي الله عنه .What were those words? A narration of Sahīh Bukhari sheds light on this matter.
“A man came to Suhail رضي الله عنه and said that the Emir of Madinah Munawwarah maligns Sayyidinā Ali رضي الله عنه from the pulpit. Suhail رضي الله عنه asked him, “What does he say?” He replied “He calls Ali رضي الله عنه – Abu al-Turāb.
Suhail رضي الله عنه laughed and said, “By Allāh! Rasūlullah صلى الله عليه و سلّم himself gave him this name and no other name was dearer to Ali رضي الله عنه than Abu al-Turāb.” [Sahīh Bukhari, Kitāb al-Manāqib: Vol 1 Pg. 525]
The financial help and gifts that The Ahlul Bayt used to receive from Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه
1) Sayyidinā Hasan رضي الله عنه visited Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه, and Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه gave him four hundred thousand dirhams.”[Al Isāba Vol. 2 , pg. 330]
2) Amīr Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه would give a million Dirhams to Sayyidinā Hasan رضي الله عنه annually. [Al Isāba Vol. 2/ pg. 330]
3) Amīr Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه gifted 300 000 dirham, 1 000 sets of clothing, 30 slaves and 100 camels to Sayyidinā Hassan رضي الله عنه. [Umdatul Qāri, p. 283]
4) After the demise of Sayyidinā Hasan رضي الله عنه, Sayyidinā Husain رضي الله عنه used to visit Amīr Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه on a yearly basis, who would honour him and welcome him with gifts. [Al Bidāyah, Vol. 7, p. 162]
Some writers have accused Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه of the following:
1. Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه passed the law that Muslim may inherit from the disbelievers and the disbelievers may not inherit from the Muslims.
The answer to this accusation is very simple. The matter of Muslims inheriting from non-Muslims is a Mukhtalaf Fii Mas’alah (jurisprudential matter with varying opinions) which existed from the era of the Ṣaḥābah al-Kirām. Sayyidinā Mu’ādh Ibn Jabal, Muāwiyyah, Hasan, Sa’eed Ibn al-Musayyib Masrūq, Muhammad Ibn Hanafiyah, Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Husain , Ibrahim al-Nakha’i and Ishāq have all (رضي الله عنهم) maintained the verdict of permissibility in this matter.
Regarding Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه, Sayyidinā Ibn Abbas said that he is a Faqīh (Jurist of Islām); undoubtedly he was from among the Ulamā of the Ṣaḥābah al-Kirām and he is the same person whom Rasūlullah صلى الله عليه و سلّم appointed as Kātibul Wahi (scribe of revelation). He also narrated 163 Aḥādīth Shareef. Therefore, accusing Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه of innovation only demonstrates one’s ignorance with regards to the Masā’il of Deen.
2. Stealing from the spoils of war:
Mawdūdi Sahib accused Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه of stealing from the spoils of war and Muslim treasuries. Once again to substantiate his claims he mentioned various references. Upon verification, it has been deduced that these references have been falsified.
Actually, let’s have a look at the generosity and selflessness of Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه.
a) ‘Atiyah Ibn Qais رضي الله عنه narrates that Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه never left a single cent in the Muslim treasury, but spent everything on the Muslims. ( al-Muntaqah Li al-Dhahabi : pg. 388)
b) Before his demise, Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه had bequeathed more than half of his wealth and belongings to the Bait al-Māl. (al-Bidāyah )
c) Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه always abided to the dictates of the Shariah regarding the Baitul Māl and every other aspect of Deen. (Taheerul Janān wal Lisān & al-Sawā’iq al-Muharriqah)
THE KHILAFAH OF YAZID IBN MU’AWIYAH
The topic of Yazīd’s appointment as Khilafah has been the cause of major disputes. Unfortunately, we find two groups in this scenario:
1. Those who despise Yazīd to such an extent that in the process they even crucify the beloved companions of Rasūlullah صلى الله عليه و سلّم, such as Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah and Sayyidinā Mugheerah Ibn Shu’bah رضي الله عنهما.
2. Those who proclaim such love for Yazīd that in the process they will go to the extent of blaspheming the Ṣaḥābah al-Kirām with egotism and greed.
APPOINTING ONE’S RELATIVE AS KHALIFAH:
Question: Is it permissible for the present Khalīfah to appoint someone from among his relatives as the future Khalīfah? Answer:
1. There is Ijmā (consensus) of the Ummah regarding this topic that the present Khalīfah may appoint someone as his vicegerent irrespective of the fact that this person is from among his relatives or not; as long as the Khalīfah perceives attributes of leadership in him (Izālatul Khifa ‘An Khilāfatul Khulafāh: Vol: pg. 5) .
2. Qādhi Abu Bakr Ibn al-‘Arabi al-Maliki رحمه الله has termed the appointment of Yazīd by Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه as permissible and acceptable. ( al-‘Awāsim Min al-Qawāsim: pg.222)
IS SAYYIDINĀ MUAWIYAH رضي الله عنه JUSTIFIED FOR APPOINTING YAZĪD AS HIS KHILAFAH?
Once in a sermon, Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه made the following Dua:
1. O’ Allāh! I have appointed Yazīd as my vicegerent because I have seen constructive attributes of leadership within him; therefore facilitate this task for him. And, if I have appointed him out of love and affection, then do not place the mantle of Khilafah upon him.” (Tārikh al-Islām of Dhahabi)
2. After the peace treaty between Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه and Sayyidinā Hasan رضي الله عنه, Amir Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه appointed Hasan رضي الله عنه as the next Khalīfah, but Hasan رضي الله عنه passed away before the demise of Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه, thereupon he appointed Yazīd as Khalīfah. (al-Bidāyah wa al-Nihāyah: vol.7 / pg. 80)
3. One of the main reasons for the repudiation of Yazīd’s Khilafah has been the battle of Karbala. Yazīd’s involvement in the massacre of Karbala has been termed insubstantial by many scholars of Islām. Initially, Husain رضي الله عنه did not pledged his allegiance to Yazīd as the people of Iraq had invited him over to become their leader. At the time, only the citizens of Syria had supposedly pledged allegiance to Yazīd, because of which Sayyidinā Husain رضي الله عنه was uncertain of the establishment of Yazīd’s khilafah.
Sayyidinā Husain رضي الله عنه knew that Yazīd wanted to enforce his dominion upon the Muslim world, but had not succeeded as yet; therefore he decided to migrate to Iraq, not to rebel, but rather to stop the forceful and unwanted dominion of Yazīd. If Yazīd’s rule had been established upon the Muslim world, Sayyidinā Husain رضي الله عنه would have accepted his rule in light of the dictates of the Shariah.
Therefore, when he reached Kūfah and realised that the people of Kūfah had betrayed him and the rule of Yazīd was established in Kūfah already, he offered to take the pledge of allegiance at his hands. But unfortunately, the notorious Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyād and Shamar Ibn Zil Jawshan did not allow Sayyidinā Husain رضي الله عنه to take the pledge of allegiance and started the massacre of Karbala.
4. Upon the demise of Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه, Ibn Abbas رضي الله عنه instructed his disciples and companions in the following words: “Verily, Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه was a virtuous and righteous person and his son is from a righteous lineage, therefore take the pledge of allegiance at his hands. [Ansābul Ashrāf of Bilāzari رحمه الله]
5. During the Fitnah of Harrah, Abdullah Ibn Muti’ approached Muhammad Ibn Hanafiyah رحمه الله (son of Sayyidinā Ali رضي الله عنه) and complained that Yazīd is a drunkard, does not establish Ṣalāh. In addition, he does not rule in conformity to the Book of Allāh. Muhammad Ibn Hanafiyah رحمه الله replied: “This is a lie; I stayed in the company of Yazīd and found him to be punctual in Ṣalāh, adhering to the Qurān, steadfast on the Sunnah and always seeking the counsel of the Ulamā in matters of jurisprudence.” From this, we may deduce that, outwardly, Yazīd definitely qualified for khilafah and his inward condition is between him and Allāh Ta’ālā.
Finally, we may say that all the allegations against Sayyidinā Muāwiyyah رضي الله عنه are either baseless or merely misinterpretation of the enemies of Islām. Allāmah Ibn Hajar al-Haythami رحمه الله has stated a very important principle of the Ahl al-Sunnah Wa al-Jamā’ah in this regard:
“It is not permissible for anyone to criticize or vilify the Ṣaḥābah al-Kirām رضي الله عنه in regards to the incidents which took place between them. It is strictly Harām (impermissible) to do so, as such an action will cause major social discord and disunity in the Ummah.
[Tatheerul Janān wal Lisān / al-Sawā’iq al-Muharriqah].”